Bonsoir à tous, et merci à Thy pour votre réponse en anglais. J’ai compris tous!
Si, comme posée par Clovis, Béra de Barcelone et Béra du Razès sont un, et dux Guilhem de Toulouse et Guillemund du Razès sont un, je ne comprends pas pourquoi beaucoup des historiens français et anglais proposent qu’ils n’est pas un…!
Alors, j’ai assez de reconstruire un histoire fondé sur un Béra et un Guilhem:
In 781, the Count of Razès, Guillemund, father of Bera I, was given charge of the March of Spain and Gothia (much of which was still in the hands of the Saracens, though Narbonne had been in Frankish hands since 759), both in political and military terms, and in religious terms through the founding of the benedictine abbey of Alet. The historian Amardel states that after 782 Theodoric yielded his office as Count of Narbonne to Milo, the last of the independent Gothic chiefs of Septimania. This Milo may have been related to Count Borell of Urgell-Cerdanya (and after 798, Ausona), one of the original Gothic count of the Urgell-Cerdanya-Confluent region, who was for some years in charge of Roussillon or tp Count Bellon of Carcassonne, another so-called Gothic chief who was appointed count of Carcassonne by Charlemagne in 768.
In 781 Pallars and Ribagorça come under the control of the counts of Toulouse. From 778, following the Roncesvalles debacle, Chorso(n), Tercin or Torsin, a ‘Prince of Narbonne’ was count of Toulouse. From 778 general supervision of the Gascon area seems to have been placed in the hands of this Chorso(n), who continued as count or dux of Toulouse until 788, much to the displeasure of the Gascons. Chorso disgraced himself by being taken prisoner by Adelrich, chief of the Gascons, who rose in revolt in 788. Chorso’s successor as count of Toulouse was Count Guilhem, son of the consul Thierry (of Narbonne) and Aldana.
In 799 Archbishop Nimphridius/Nimfridius/Nefridus of Narbonne founded the abbey of Lagrasse at the heart of the Corbières. He was a close friend of Benedict of Aniane, as was the Spanish churchman, and missus dominicus, Theodulf of Orleans, who in 798 was sent to the region to combat Arianism and the iconoclastic issue. Bera I count of Razès, together with his father Guillemund, lord of the Razès region, received the two missi dominici (Theodulf and Leidrad) in 798 in the sala of the fortified city of Rhedae (Rennes-le-Château). Theodulf also visited Carcassonne during this 798 visit. Ermold le Noir calls Bera of Barcelona “le princeps de Goths de Septimanie”.
Three years later, in 801, this same Bera, son of Guillemund, was appointed the first governor of the city of Barcelona after its capture by the Franks. In 801reconnaissance into the Spanish peninsula was launched under the leadership of Count Bera, the Goth ruler of Barcelona-Besalu-Gerona, husband of Romille, and brother of the deceased Guilhelm short nose of Toulouse.
Barcelona was taken on Sunday, 19 November, 803 according to the Chronique de Moissac (the RFA and Ermold state that Barcelona was taken in the summer of 801). Both Heribert and Bera (count of Roussillon from around 785 and after 803 count of Barcelona as Zado/Zatun’s successor) accompanied their father Guilhem “Chief Standard-bearer” who led the expedition beyond the Pyrenees to take Barcelona by seige. According to the Vie de Louis le Pieux, the Frankish army was divided into three parts: one with the king in Roussillon, one under Rostagnus, count of Gerona, which actually began the seige, and a third under the command of Dux Guilhem and Ademar (Hadhemar), which was posted in the direction of Cordoba (to head off an attack from the south). Bera, the chief of the Goths, commanded a Goth contingent (the same Bera who was given charge of Barcelona after the seige and was accused of treason in 820). Duke Lupus Sancho took part in the seige of Barcelona as commander of an army of Gascons, which may explain why it was possible for the inhabitants of Pamplona to mount an uprising in support of the Banu Qasi and Iniga Arista’s father. The counts mentioned by Ermold le Noir as participating in the seige with their men are Guilhem, Ademar, Héribert, Liutard of Fezensac, Bera (who perhaps led a Goth contingent levied from the Narbonne-Carcassonne region), Isembard (an army had been levied in Burgundy), Hiltiberth and Lupus Sancho.
In 812 Bernard and Bera’s brother Gaucelm/Gothselm is entrusted with command of the Gothic march (the old Gothic Septimania).
In 817 Gaucelm took charge of Ampurias-Roussillon, after the redivision of the frontier by Louis under his viceroy for young Pepin of Aquitaine, Count Berengar of Toulouse (successor to Bego, former count of Paris, who had succeeded Duke Guilhem after his retirement to Gellone).
The office Marquis of Gothia was first created in 817 by Louis the Pious in order to administer the newly formed March of Gothia, which was established when the old Merovingian Septimania (including Narbonne) became attached to the Spanish March. This post was first held by Bernard’s brother, Gaucelm, the count of Roussillon (probably including Urgel, Cerdanya, Gerona, Ausona south of the Pyrenees), who was still Marquis of Gothia in 829. This means that Gaucelm held the Marquisate of Gothia and Berengar was given Toulouse at the same time, in 817. By the Ordinatio of 817, both Autun and Gascony become attached to Pepin I's kingdom of Aquitaine and are effectively ruled by Pepin’s new viceroy, Count Berengar of Toulouse. Members of the ducal family of Gascony were therefore deprived of their title dux Vasconum. The new boundaries for Aquitaine included the entire Gascon border to the west, Pallars-Ribagorça and the Urgell-Cerdanya-Besalu complex to the south and Carcassonne-Razès to the east in 817. The charter of 817 included a measure by which, on the death of their father (Emperor Louis), Pepin of Aquitaine and Louis the German would have their respective kingdoms (dominions) expanded, Pepin I by the annexation of Gascony, the entire mark (march) of Toulouse, and four counties in addition to that: Carcassonne in Septimania, and Autun, Avallon and Nevers in Burgundy. In the same year (817) Septimania and the maritime counties of Catalonia (Roussillon, Ampurias under Gaucelm, Gerona-Besalu-Barcelona under Count Bera, and Provence and Septimania, excluding Carcassonne-Razès, under Count Leibulf) were taken away from Pepin I’s sub-kingdom of Aquitaine (with Berengar as the new viceroy) and placed under direct imperial control (i.e. under Louis the Pious). We first hear mention of Guilhem’s son Bernard (later of Septimania), Emperor Louis’ godson, in 817, in the function of Count of the Palace at Aix. The Goth Theodulf of Orleans, Bera’s compatriot and friend, rebelled in 817 against Louis the Pious. He was accused of complicity with Bernard king of Italy, disgraced and exiled to the monastery of Angers, where he died shortly afterwards in 821.
In 820, the Goth count of Barcelona appointed by King Louis the Pious, Bera, who had assisted in the capture of the city of Barcelona for Louis in command of a Goth contingent in 801, was forced into what may have been a very unequal trial by combat (judicial duel as a traitor) when accused of high treason and infidelity by another Goth called Senila/Sanila/Sunila, a friend of Bernard's brother, Gozhelm/Gaucelm (they die together at the hands of Lothar in Chalon) and when he lost, was deprived of all his counties (a.o. Barcelona, Gerona). Ermold le Noir implies that both men (Bera and Sanilo/Sunila) were Goths. Sanila and Bera came to Louis in Aix and Sanila accused Bera in front of the people and nobles. Louis says to them: “ if one of you wishes to confess volantarily and admit your guilt then you will be pardoned. Better to obey me than engage in this terrible battle.” However, both men wanted to fight. They fought on horseback, using first lances, then swords. After engaging in combat for some time, Bera turned his bridle and fled at great haste into huge meadow followed by Sanila in hot pursuit. According to the rules of combat, Bera was found guilty. Ermold declares that Louis pardoned the vanquished Bera, granted him his life and left him in possession of his biens. Other sources relate that Bera was defeated and condemned to death in 820, but the sentence was revoked and Bera was subsequently exiled to Rouen. Sholod states that Bera of Barcelona was a petty count of native origin, and that after his defeat in 820, both Barcelona and Gerona were ruled until 825 by Rampon, formerly Frankish count of Gerona. Bera's counties were first bestowed on a Frank, Count Rampon/Rampo, then in 826 Rampon’s counties were given to Bernard of Septimania, then after 844 to Sunifred of Cerdanya, and it is these same lands that are later given to Oliba (Oliver) II of Carcassonne by Charles the Bald (these lands include fiscal lands in Ausona, which had been Borell’s county, and Carcassonne, which had been Bellon’s county), just before Charles’ death in 877. We are told that this consisted of property (biens) taken from the ‘unfaithful Bera’ (infideliter Etilius Berani).
Count Borell’s county of Urgell-Cerdanya was given to Count Asnar Galindo, exiled count of Aragón, in exactly the same year as Bera of Barcelona’s defeat in 820. From 817 Urgell-Cerdanya had become part of Aquitaine, as had Carcassonne-Razès according to Lewis, and Berengar of Toulouse, Louis’ new viceroy, would have sought to place his allies in command of these regions, as opposed to the indigenous Goth or Septimanian rulers such as Bera and Borell. This seems to imply a general removal from power of Bera’s family, which may have included Borell. Sunila, on the other hand, is likely to have been of the family of Sunyer and Sunifred, i.e. a member of Bellon of Carcassonne’s family. Bera of Barcelona's destitution directly benefitted the other sons of Dux Guilhem of Toulouse, Count Gozhelm/Gaucelm of Roussillon (beheaded in Chalon by Lothar in 834), Sunila’s friend, and some years later Bernard of Septimania. Bernard, Louis’ god-son, was Count of the Palace at Aix from 818 until he was sent south to Barcelona shortly after his marriage to Dhuoda in 824. Berengar may have made use of the dispute between Bernard’s elder brothers and the Carcassonne family of Bera to get his own allies, among others, Asnar Galindo of Aragón, appointed to strategic positions in the eastern Pyrenees. Bera’s son Willemund later appeared as an ally of the rebel Aizo. After the collapse of Bernard's power in the March in the early 830s, Sunila and Gozhelm fled together to Chalon-sur-Sôane where in 834 they were both put to death by Lothar.
Un Béra (peut-être avec deux femmes, Romille et Alpaïs) et un Guilhem est donc vraiment un possibité!
Et finalement, un petit question pour tous: qui était Bueve Cornebut, comte de Comarchis? Bellon de Carcassonne?